Tag: Judaism

Women Are Disciples, Too

1 Timothy 2:11-13

So all religions are just different ways up the same mountain to the same god. Right. And they all hold women in same high esteem. Right again. Let’s see if other religious traditions bear that out. For example,

Judaism:

“Lord God, I thank You that I am not a Gentile, a slave, or a woman.” Now, that was the prayer that the liturgy instructed every Jewish male to pray when he got up in the morning. Ligon Duncan

Buddhism:

Buddha himself said, “The female’s defects … greed, hate, and delusion and other defilements – are greater than the male’s.”

Islam:

Qur’an (4:11) – (Inheritance) “The male shall have the equal of the portion of two females” Qur’an (2:282) – (Court testimony) “And call to witness, from among your men, two witnesses. And if two men be not found then a man and two women.” Qur’an (4:3) – (Wife-to-husband ratio) “Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four” Qur’an (4:24) – ” the good women are therefore obedient; ….and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them.” (Shakir)

Hinduism:

In the Atharva Veda one verse states that “a wife is given by God to a husband to serve him and to bear him children. Further she is referred to by her husband as his subordinate and slave.” (Atharva Veda 14.01.52). In one scripture it states, “The following eight qualities are characteristic qualities of women. They are: uttering lies, unsteadiness, deceit, stupidity, greed, impurity, wickedness and rashness.” (Sukra 3-163).

Christianity:

1 Cor. 7:3Let the husband render to his wife the affection due her….” Eph. 5:25 “Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself for her” Eph. 5:28 “So husbands ought to love their own wives as their own bodies…” Eph. 5:33 “…let each one of you in particular so love his own wife as himself….” Col. 3:19 “Husbands, love your wives” 1 Peter 3:7 “Husbands, likewise, dwell with them with understanding, giving honor to the wife…”

Matthew Henry on Gen. 2:21

“That the woman was made of a rib out of the side of Adam; not made out of his head to rule over him, nor out of his feet to be trampled upon by him, but out of his side to be equal with him, under his arm to be protected, and near his heart to be beloved. …If man is the head, she is the crown, a crown to her husband, the crown of the visible creation.”

Biblical Christianity, unlike any other religious system, affords women the place of esteem and value the Creator God intends they should have. (true of children, too; just focusing here on women) But, it’s not an “anything goes” sort of situation. That honorable place comes with both expectations and boundaries established by God, defined in Scripture.

A. women must learn v.11

μανθανετω – imperative, a command: “a woman should learn”, “a woman must learn”

covers where, what and how

broader subject here is “conduct in worship” – men are to pray, women are to learn

women who have reputation for godliness (v.10) must have as full an understanding of God’s truth as possible

cannot think and act like a Christian as God defines one without knowledge – doesn’t come naturally

not off the hook for paying attention to the sermon; see 1 Pet. 3:1-2

think about what Peter means: you are speechless, ladies (a stretch I know), and you communicate gospel truth clearly enough by your daily actions that your unsaved husband is drawn to faith in Christ

“Women, don’t lag behind the men in your knowledge of theology and Christian truth” Geoff Thomas

not off the hook for serious Bible study – taking notes on Sunday morning/evening, furthering understanding during the week; remember saints in Berea

Acts 17:11 These were more fair – minded than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness, and searched the Scriptures daily to find out whether these things were so.

quietly with full submission

quiet lips and hearts – addresses attitude or spirit as much as action

not absolute silence; would contradict teaching that addresses women praying publicly (1 Cor. 11); and singing – women are included in the “one another” passages (Eph. 5:19)

it’s quietness that shows deference to those to whom God has given the leadership role

ladies here: times you quote scripture along with pastor, respond to something said, see your lips moving; that’s ok

what’s not ok – lack of quietness that resists or challenges God’s truth as it is proclaimed

full submission – not to individual but to God’s word/truth

isn’t blind acceptance; don’t get to check brains at the door, need to keep them and use them

a spirit that strives to willingly conform to principles and patterns laid down in Scripture, adjusting thoughts and actions as necessary

btw, that applies to all regardless of age or gender

B. women must not teach v.12

“I do not permit” – not limited to personal practice; Paul speaking with apostolic authority (Matt. 10:40; John 13:20; Gal. 4:14)

just as binding as any other portion of apostolic teaching

cannot apply to all settings: see Titus 2:3-5; 2 Tim. 3:14; Acts 18:26

older women teaching younger women; mothers teaching children; private mentoring: Aquila, Priscilla & Apollos

to take last example little further: are circumstances where wife has fuller understanding of spiritual truth than husband; her task – help husband grow in grasp of truth while maintaining God-given role relationship

is applicable to particular setting – local church gathered together

important to notice how the way we do church today differs from 1st century, in fact, most of history

much of what people expect today is of modern invention: graded Sunday School, nursery, youth group, junior church – segregating by age

more in common with world’s philosophy of education than Bible; God’s Word puts age groups together, doesn’t separate them

letters written to church at Ephesus, Colosse, intended to be read publicly in worship service: address wives, husbands, children, slaves – all were present to hear the Word

Nehemiah 8:2-3 reading from the Law to “men and women and all who could understand what they heard”

in view in 1 Tim.: preaching/teaching ministry of the church when gathered together, encompassing men / women / boys / girls of all ages

and particular relationship – exercise of authority

God has designated offices in local church – elder, deacon – assigned specific qualifications for office, duties that pertain to each

in view here: two-fold office of elder as described in 1 Tim. 5:17

“Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and doctrine [teaching].”

v.12 makes plain that neither aspect of that office is to be carried out by women in the church – women are not to serve in pastoral office, as elders, exercising that kind of authoritative leadership in a local church

“For men and women who have a heart to minister—to see souls saved and broken lives healed and resist evil and meet needs—there are fields of opportunity that are simply endless. God intends for the entire church to be mobilized in ministry, male and female. Nobody is to be at home watching soaps and reruns while the world burns. And God intends to equip and mobilize the saints through a company of spiritual men who take primary responsibility for leadership and teaching in the church.” John Piper

C. because God says so v.13

established in Creation sequence – all up for grabs if evolution is true

Adam (Gen. 2:15) — command (Gen. 2:16-17) — Eve (Gen. 2:21-22)

Adam’s job/responsibility: instruct his wife in God’s truth; take the lead in family worship

Eve’s job: help him fulfill that responsibility well, supporting his leadership

structure that applies to human family also valid for church family

Adam named creatures (Gen. 2:19) — named Woman (Gen. 2:23, pre-Fall) — named Eve (Gen. 3:20, post-Fall)

exercise of authority as God’s vice-regent: whatever the man called… that was its name

emphasizes distinctions and relationships: distinct from creatures, relationship not bi-directional; male-female the same

see also 1 Cor. 11:8-9

“For man is not from woman, but woman from man. Nor was man created for the woman, but woman for the man.”

not only is order of creation in view here, so also is purpose

why was woman created? for what purpose? to be a suitable helper to man (Gen. 2:20)

Is there such a thing as true women’s liberation? Certainly. When godly women are liberated from pursuit of rights and roles and responsibilities that by God’s design will never satisfy. When instead godly women are committed to doing all of life God’s way, determined to fulfill the role and carry out the responsibilities God expects them to and men and children need them to. May God give us all a spirit of quiet submission to truth of his Word, the courage and strength to live according to its precepts.

Cults, Religions and the Occult: How Do They Compare? – Session 4, Part 4

  1.   Cults, Religions and the Occult:  Roman Catholicism & Judaism
    1. Roman Catholicism
      Catholics believe that our Lord Jesus Christ founded the Catholic Church in the year 33. Jesus appointed the apostle Peter as the first vicar or pope. Matthew 16:18-19 are the scriptural references Catholics give to support this. “And I say unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock, I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the Kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shalt be loosed in heaven.”

      Around the year A.D. 45, Peter went to Rome and assumed control of the church. During the persecution of Christians by the emperor Nero, Peter was imprisoned and scourged. He gave his farewell blessing to all of his flock, and especially to Saint Paul, who was going to be beheaded the same day outside Rome. He was then led to the top of Vatican Mount to be executed by crucifixion. Deeming himself to be unworthy to die in the same position as our Lord, he asked to be crucified upside down. He received his eternal reward on June 29 in the year 67. Two hundred sixty six popes have succeeded Peter since.

      For the next 300 years, Rome would begin a serious persecution against the truth. Christians began to meet behind closed doors and gradual changes were made. Elders of the church were known as bishops, and by the close of the third century; each congregation of any size had a bishop as its head, with a group of elders under him. No work was to be done on Sunday.

      In 306, Constantine became sole emperor of Rome. His mother Helena became a Christian and urged Constantine to ease up on the persecution of Christians. He decided that Christianity would now be the state religion. Finding much division in the church, he decided to call a meeting to be held in Nicaea in May 325 A.D. to discuss and unite over the issues that divided the church. Three hundred eighteen bishops assembled and established the Nicene Creed.

      Several doctrines were decreed. (1) The Oneness of Deity (2) Easter to be celebrated on the same day (3) Preachers not to be married (4) Certain meats not to be eaten on Sunday by bishops (5) A greater recognition given to the bishops of Antioch, Constantinople, Alexandria, Rome, and Jerusalem. These bishops would be patriarchs, and all authority would be under them.

      In A.D. 606, Boniface III was given the title “universal bishop,” the pope of Rome. The word “pope” means father. This marked the beginning of the Roman Catholic Church.

      Today there are an estimated 1.038 billion Catholics in the world. They make up almost 18 percent of the world population. The pope still heads the church, and priests are urged to remain celibate. (http://www.allaboutreligion.org/history-of-the-catholic-church-faq.htm)

      1. Authority
        In keeping with the Lord’s command, the Gospel was handed on in two ways:

        – orally “by the apostles who handed on, by the spoken word of their preaching, by the example they gave, by the institutions they established, what they themselves had received;
        – in writing “by those apostles and other men associated with the apostles who, under the inspiration of the same Holy Spirit, committed the message of salvation to writing”.

        . . . continued in apostolic succession
        “In order that the full and living Gospel might always be preserved in the Church the apostles left bishops as their successors. They gave them their own position of teaching authority.” Indeed, “the apostolic preaching, which is expressed in a special way in the inspired books, was to be preserved in a continuous line of succession until the end of time.”
        This living transmission, accomplished in the Holy Spirit, is called Tradition, since it is distinct from Sacred Scripture, though closely connected to it. (76-78)

        …the Church, to whom the transmission and interpretation of Revelation is entrusted, “does not derive her certainty about all revealed truths from the holy Scriptures alone. Both Scripture and Tradition must be accepted and honored with equal sentiments of devotion and reverence.” (83)

        “The task of giving an authentic interpretation of the Word of God, whether in its written form or in the form of Tradition, has been entrusted to the living teaching office of the Church alone. Its authority in this matter is exercised in the name of Jesus Christ.” This means that the task of interpretation has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter, the Bishop of Rome. (85)

        It is the task of exegetes to work, according to these rules, towards a better understanding and explanation of the meaning of Sacred Scripture in order that their research may help the Church to form a firmer judgment. For, of course, all that has been said about the manner of interpreting Scripture is ultimately subject to the judgment of the Church which exercises the divinely conferred commission and ministry of watching over and interpreting the Word of God. (119)

        The Roman Catholic Church has traditionally suppressed, opposed, and forbidden the open use of the Bible. It was first officially forbidden to the people and placed on the index of Forbidden Books List by the Council of Valencia in 1229 A.D. The Council of Trent (1545-63 A.D.) also prohibited its use and pronounced a curse upon anyone who would dare oppose this decree. Many popes have issued decrees forbidding Bible reading in the common language of the people, condemning Bible societies and banning its possession and translation under penalty of mortal sin and death. The Roman Catholic Church has openly burned Bibles and those who translated it or promoted its study, reading, and use (John Hus, 1415 A.D.; William Tyndale, 1536 A.D.) Roman Catholic Religion Examined

      2. God

        “I believe in God”: this first affirmation of the Apostles’ Creed is also the most fundamental. The whole Creed speaks of God, and when it also speaks of man and of the world it does so in relation to God. The other articles of the Creed all depend on the first, just as the remaining Commandments make the first explicit. The other articles help us to know God better as he revealed himself progressively to men. (199)

        Jesus revealed that God is Father in an unheard-of sense: he is Father not only in being Creator; he is eternally Father in relation to his only Son, who is eternally Son only in relation to his Father. (240)

        The apostolic faith concerning the Spirit was confessed by the second ecumenical council at Constantinople (381): “We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and giver of life, who proceeds from the Father.” By this confession, the Church recognizes the Father as “the source and origin of the whole divinity”. But the eternal origin of the Spirit is not unconnected with the Son’s origin: “The Holy Spirit, the third person of the Trinity, is God, one and equal with the Father and the Son, of the same substance and also of the same nature. . . Yet he is not called the Spirit of the Father alone,. . . but the Spirit of both the Father and the Son.” (245)
        The Trinity is one; the divine persons are really distinct from one another; the divine persons are relative to one another. (253-255)

      3. Christ

        Taking up St. John’s expression, “The Word became flesh”, the Church calls “Incarnation” the fact that the Son of God assumed a human nature in order to accomplish our salvation in it. (461)

        The unique and altogether singular event of the Incarnation of the Son of God does not mean that Jesus Christ is part God and part man, nor does it imply that he is the result of a confused mixture of the divine and the human. He became truly man while remaining truly God. Jesus Christ is true God and true man. (464)

        The Church thus confesses that Jesus is inseparably true God and true man. He is truly the Son of God who, without ceasing to be God and Lord, became a man and our brother. (469)

        Jesus Christ is true God and true man, in the unity of his divine person; for this reason he is the one and only mediator between God and men. (480)

        To become the mother of the Savior, Mary “was enriched by God with gifts appropriate to such a role.” Through the centuries the Church has become ever more aware that Mary, “full of grace” through God, was redeemed from the moment of her conception. That is what the dogma of the Immaculate Conception confesses, as Pope Pius IX proclaimed in 1854: The most Blessed Virgin Mary was, from the first moment of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege of almighty God and by virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, Savior of the human race, preserved immune from all stain of original sin. (490-491)

      4. Man

        “God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him, male and female he created them.” Man occupies a unique place in creation: (I) he is “in the image of God”; (II) in his own nature he unites the spiritual and material worlds; (III) he is created “male and female”; (IV) God established him in his friendship. (355)

        Only the light of divine Revelation clarifies the reality of sin and particularly of the sin committed at mankind’s origins. Without the knowledge Revelation gives of God we cannot recognize sin clearly and are tempted to explain it as merely a developmental flaw, a psychological weakness, a mistake, or the necessary consequence of an inadequate social structure, etc. Only in the knowledge of God’s plan for man can we grasp that sin is an abuse of the freedom that God gives to created persons so that they are capable of loving him and loving one another. (387)

        The account of the fall in Genesis 3 uses figurative language, but affirms a primeval event, a deed that took place at the beginning of the history of man. Revelation gives us the certainty of faith that the whole of human history is marked by the original fault freely committed by our first parents. (390)

        Behind the disobedient choice of our first parents lurks a seductive voice, opposed to God, which makes them fall into death out of envy. Scripture and the Church’s Tradition see in this being a fallen angel, called “Satan” or the “devil”. (391)

        God created man a rational being, conferring on him the dignity of a person who can initiate and control his own actions. “God willed that man should be ‘left in the hand of his own counsel,’ so that he might of his own accord seek his Creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him.” Man is rational and therefore like God; he is created with free will and is master over his acts. (1730)

        God created man a rational being, conferring on him the dignity of a person who can initiate and control his own actions. “God willed that man should be ‘left in the hand of his own counsel,’ so that he might of his own accord seek his Creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him.” (1731)

        Man is rational and therefore like God; he is created with free will and is master over his acts. (1732)

      5. Salvation

        Celebrated worthily in faith, the sacraments confer the grace that they signify. They are efficacious because in them Christ himself is at work: it is he who baptizes, he who acts in his sacraments in order to communicate the grace that each sacrament signifies. The Father always hears the prayer of his Son’s Church which, in the epiclesis [the invocation of the Holy Spirit to consecrate the bread and wine of the Eucharist] of each sacrament, expresses her faith in the power of the Spirit. As fire transforms into itself everything it touches, so the Holy Spirit transforms into the divine life whatever is subjected to his power. (1127)

        This is the meaning of the Church’s affirmation that the sacraments act ex opere operato (literally: “by the very fact of the action’s being performed”), i.e., by virtue of the saving work of Christ, accomplished once for all. It follows that “the sacrament is not wrought by the righteousness of either the celebrant or the recipient, but by the power of God.” From the moment that a sacrament is celebrated in accordance with the intention of the Church, the power of Christ and his Spirit acts in and through it, independently of the personal holiness of the minister. Nevertheless, the fruits of the sacraments also depend on the disposition of the one who receives them. (1128)

        The Church affirms that for believers the sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for salvation. “Sacramental grace” is the grace of the Holy Spirit, given by Christ and proper to each sacrament. The Spirit heals and transforms those who receive him by conforming them to the Son of God. The fruit of the sacramental life is that the Spirit of adoption makes the faithful partakers in the divine nature by uniting them in a living union with the only Son, the Savior. (1129)

        The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions. (1131)

        Holy Baptism is the basis of the whole Christian life, the gateway to life in the Spirit (vitae spiritualis ianua), and the door which gives access to the other sacraments. Through Baptism we are freed from sin and reborn as sons of God; we become members of Christ, are incorporated into the Church and made sharers in her mission: “Baptism is the sacrament of regeneration through water in the word.” (1213)

        This sacrament is also called “the washing of regeneration and renewal by the Holy Spirit,” for it signifies and actually brings about the birth of water and the Spirit without which no one “can enter the kingdom of God.” (1215)

        NOTE: The seven sacraments are 1) Baptism (1213-1284); 2) Confirmation (1285-1321); 3) Eucharist (1322-1419); 4) Penance (1422-1498); 5) Anointing of the Sick (1499-1532); 6) Holy Orders (1536-1600); 7) Matrimony (1601-1666)

      6. Right/Wrong

        The moral law is the work of divine Wisdom. Its biblical meaning can be defined as fatherly instruction, God’s pedagogy. It prescribes for man the ways, the rules of conduct that lead to the promised beatitude; it proscribes the ways of evil which turn him away from God and his love. It is at once firm in its precepts and, in its promises, worthy of love. (1950)

        There are different expressions of the moral law, all of them interrelated: eternal law – the source, in God, of all law; natural law; revealed law, comprising the Old Law and the New Law, or Law of the Gospel; finally, civil and ecclesiastical laws. (1952)

        The Church, the “pillar and bulwark of the truth,” “has received this solemn command of Christ from the apostles to announce the saving truth.” “To the Church belongs the right always and everywhere to announce moral principles, including those pertaining to the social order, and to make judgments on any human affairs to the extent that they are required by the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls.” (2032)

        The Roman Pontiff and the bishops are “authentic teachers, that is, teachers endowed with the authority of Christ, who preach the faith to the people entrusted to them, the faith to be believed and put into practice.” The ordinary and universal Magisterium of the Pope and the bishops in communion with him teach the faithful the truth to believe, the charity to practice, the beatitude to hope for. The supreme degree of participation in the authority of Christ is ensured by the charism of infallibility. This infallibility extends as far as does the deposit of divine Revelation; it also extends to all those elements of doctrine, including morals, without which the saving truths of the faith cannot be preserved, explained, or observed. (2034-2035)

        Freedom makes man responsible for his acts to the extent that they are voluntary. Progress in virtue, knowledge of the good, and ascesis [rigorous self-denial and active self-restraint] enhance the mastery of the will over its acts. (1734)

        Sin is an offense against reason, truth, and right conscience; it is failure in genuine love for God and neighbor caused by a perverse attachment to certain goods. It wounds the nature of man and injures human solidarity. It has been defined as “an utterance, a deed, or a desire contrary to the eternal law.” Sin is an offense against God. (1849-1850)

        Sins are rightly evaluated according to their gravity. The distinction between mortal and venial sin, already evident in Scripture (1 John 5:16-17), became part of the tradition of the Church. It is corroborated by human experience. (1854)

        Mortal sin destroys charity in the heart of man by a grave violation of God’s law; it turns man away from God, who is his ultimate end and his beatitude, by preferring an inferior good to him. Venial sin allows charity to subsist, even though it offends and wounds it. (1855)

        Mortal sin, by attacking the vital principle within us – that is, charity – necessitates a new initiative of God’s mercy and a conversion of heart which is normally accomplished within the setting of the sacrament of reconciliation (penance, Ed.). (1856)

        For a sin to be mortal, three conditions must together be met: “Mortal sin is sin whose object is grave matter and which is also committed with full knowledge and deliberate consent.” One commits venial sin when, in a less serious matter, he does not observe the standard prescribed by the moral law, or when he disobeys the moral law in a grave matter, but without full knowledge or without complete consent. (1857, 1862)

      7. The End

        Death puts an end to human life as the time open to either accepting or rejecting the divine grace manifested in Christ. The New Testament speaks of judgment primarily in its aspect of the final encounter with Christ in his second coming, but also repeatedly affirms that each will be rewarded immediately after death in accordance with his works and faith. (1021)

        Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul at the very moment of his death, in a particular judgment that refers his life to Christ: either entrance into the blessedness of heaven-through a purification or immediately, — or immediate and everlasting damnation. (1022)

        Those who die in God’s grace and friendship and are perfectly purified live for ever with Christ. They are like God for ever, for they “see him as he is,” face to face. (1023)

        All who die in God’s grace and friendship, but still imperfectly purified, are indeed assured of their eternal salvation; but after death they undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven. The Church gives the name Purgatory to this final purification of the elect, which is entirely different from the punishment of the damned. The Church formulated her doctrine of faith on Purgatory especially at the Councils of Florence and Trent. The tradition of the Church, by reference to certain texts of Scripture, speaks of a cleansing fire. (1030-1031)

        From the beginning the Church has honored the memory of the dead and offered prayers in suffrage for them, above all the Eucharistic sacrifice, so that, thus purified, they may attain the beatific vision of God. The Church also commends almsgiving, indulgences, and works of penance undertaken on behalf of the dead. (1032)

        To die in mortal sin without repenting and accepting God’s merciful love means remaining separated from him for ever by our own free choice. This state of definitive self-exclusion from communion with God and the blessed is called “hell.” (1033)

        The teaching of the Church affirms the existence of hell and its eternity. Immediately after death the souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell, where they suffer the punishments of hell, “eternal fire.” The chief punishment of hell is eternal separation from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs. (1035)

        At the end of time, the Kingdom of God will come in its fullness. After the universal judgment, the righteous will reign for ever with Christ, glorified in body and soul. The universe itself will be renewed: The Church will receive her perfection only in the glory of heaven, when will come the time of the renewal of all things. At that time, together with the human race, the universe itself, which is so closely related to man and which attains its destiny through him, will be perfectly re-established in Christ. Sacred Scripture calls this mysterious renewal, which will transform humanity and the world, “new heavens and a new earth.” It will be the definitive realization of God’s plan to bring under a single head “all things in [Christ], things in heaven and things on earth.” In this new universe, the heavenly Jerusalem, God will have his dwelling among men. (1042-1045)

    2. Judaism

      1. Authority:
        The Tanakh corresponds to the Jewish Scriptures, (often referred to as the Old Testament by Christians). It is composed of three groups of books:
        –the Torah (Pentateuch/Law): Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
        –the Nevi’im: (Prophets) Joshua, Judges, Samuel (2), Kings (2), Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zachariah, and Malachi.
        –the Ketuvim, the “Writings” including Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles (2).

        The Talmud contains stories, laws, medical knowledge, debates about moral choices, etc. It is composed of material which comes mainly from two sources:
        –the Mishnah’s, oral tradition, 6 “orders” containing hundreds of chapters, including series of laws from the Hebrew Scriptures. It was compiled about 200 CE.
        –the Gemara (one Babylonian and one Palestinian) is encyclopedic in scope. It includes comments from hundreds of Rabbis from 200 – 500 CE, explaining the Mishnah with additional historical, religious, legal, sociological, etc. material. It often records many different opinions on a topic without giving a definitive answer.

      2. God:
        Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, (a.k.a. Maimonides) is generally accepted as one of the most important Jewish scholars from Medieval times. He wrote a list of thirteen principles of faith. This list has been generally accepted by Jews for centuries as a brief summary of the Jewish faith. However, the liberal wings of Judaism dispute some of the 13 today.

        1. God exists.
        2. God is one and unique.
        3. God is incorporeal.
        4. God is eternal.
        5. Prayer is to be directed to God alone and to no other.
        6. The words of the prophets are true.
        7. Moses was the greatest of the prophets, and his prophecies are true.
        8. The Written Torah (first 5 books of the Bible) and Oral Torah (teachings now contained in the Talmud and other writings) were given to Moses.
        9. There will be no other Torah.
        10. God knows the thoughts and deeds of men.
        11. God will reward the good and punish the wicked.
        12. The Messiah will come.
        13. The dead will be resurrected.

        Jews are strict monotheists, like Muslims. They view God as a single, indivisible entity. This contrasts with most Christians who view God as a Trinity — a single entity with three personalities — the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

      3. Christ:
        Some Jews view Jesus as a great moral teacher. Others see him as a false prophet or as an idol of Christianity. Some sects of Judaism will not even say his name due to the prohibition against saying an idol’s name.

        The Messiah (the anointed one of God) will arrive in the future and gather Jews once more into the land of Israel. There will be a general resurrection of the dead at that time. The Jerusalem Temple, destroyed in 70 CE, will be rebuilt.

      4. Man:
        Jewish belief does not accept the Christian concept of original sin (the belief that all people have inherited Adam and Eve’s sin when they disobeyed God’s instructions in the Garden of Eden).

        Judaism affirms the inherent goodness of the world and its people as creations of God.

        The idea of human free will is fundamental to Judaism. The concept of original sin is rejected, and every person has the ability to choose good or evil.

      5. Salvation:
        Jewish believers are able to sanctify their lives and draw closer to God by performing fulfilling mitzvot (divine commandments).

        Jews do not recognize the need for a savior as an intermediary with God.

      6. Right/Wrong:
        The Mosaic Law consists of 613 commandments found in Leviticus and other books. They regulate all aspects of Jewish life.

        The Ten commandments, as delineated in Exodus 20:1-17 and Deuteronomy 5:6-21, form a brief synopsis of the Law.

        Jews generally consider actions and behavior to be of primary importance; beliefs come out of actions. This conflicts with conservative Christians for whom belief is of primary importance and actions tend to be derivative from beliefs.

      7. The End:
        Jews do not believe that the messiah will be divine. A fundamental difference between Judaism and Christianity is the Jewish conviction that God is so essentially different from and beyond humanity that he could never become a human. The “when” of the messiah’s arrival is not made clear in the Tanach, and has been a source of much scholarly speculation.

        When the messiah does come, he will inaugurate the messianic age (sometimes called the Olam Ha-Ba, World to Come). The Tanakh employs the following descriptions about this period:

        Peace among all nations (Isaiah 2:4; Micah 4:3)
        –Perfect harmony and abundance in nature (Isaiah 11:6-9) (but some interpret this as an allegory for peace and prosperity)
        –All Jews return from exile to Israel (Isaiah 11:11-12; Jeremiah 23:8; 30:3; Hosea 3:4-5)
        –Universal acceptance of the Jewish God and Jewish religion (Isaiah 2:3; 11:10; 66:23; Micah 4:2-3; Zechariah 14:9)
        –No sin or evil; all Israel will obey the commandments (Zephaniah 3:13; Ezekiel 37:24)
        –Reinstatement of the Temple (Ezekiel 37:26-27)

        Jewish sacred texts and literature have little to say about what happens after death. This may seem surprising to non-Jews, since the sacred texts of Christianity and Islam (both of which have their foundations in Judaism) elaborate rather fully about the afterlife.

        Judaism is much more focused on actions than beliefs, so it is actually to be expected that its prophets and sages have not spent as much time on speculations about the world to come as elaborations on the mitzvot to be performed in this life.

        Traditional Judaism includes belief in both heaven and hell. How is one’s destination decided? The School of Shammai offered this description:

        There will be three groups on the Day of Judgment: one of thoroughly righteous people, one of thoroughly wicked people and one of people in between. The first group will be immediately inscribed for everlasting life; the second group will be doomed in Gehinnom [Hell], as it says, “And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence” [Daniel 12:2], the third will go down to Gehinnom and squeal and rise again, as it says, “And I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried. They shall call on My name and I will answer them” [Zechariah 13:9]… [Babylonian Talmud, tractate Rosh Hashanah 16b-17a]

        The school of Hillel suggested a more merciful view, in which the middle group are sent directly to Gan Eden (Heaven) instead of Gehinnom after death. Rabbi Hanina added that all who go down to Gehinnom will go up again, except adulterers, those who put their fellows to shame in public, and those who call their fellows by an obnoxious name [Babylonian Talmud, tractate Baba Metzia 58b].

        The Talmud teaches that all Israel will have a share in Olam Ha-Ba, but makes some notable exceptions:

        All Israelites have a share in the world-to-come… [However], these are they that have no share in the world-to-come: one who says there is no resurrection of the dead prescribed in the Torah, and that the Torah is not from Heaven, and an Epicurean. (Sanhedrin 10:1)

        General Jewish belief is that one need not be Jewish to enjoy Heaven. “Moses Maimonides, echoing the Tosefta to Sanhedrin, maintained that the pious of all the nations of the world have a portion in the world-to-come [Mishneh Torah, Repentance 3:5].”