Tag: Questions Jesus Asked

19. Why do you reason among yourselves because you have brought no bread?

19. Why do you reason among yourselves because you have brought no bread?

Matthew 16:8 But Jesus, being aware of it, said to them, “O you of little faith, why do you reason among yourselves because you have brought no bread?

Read: Matthew 16:5-12; Mark 8:13-21; see also Luke 12:1(bad doctrine applied to life)


4000 feeding on northeast shore of lake, between Gergesa and Bethsaida; crossed to Magdala/Magadan (western shore) Mt. 15:39; highly unlikely religious leaders would have gone beyond Galilee, already far outside jurisdiction (75+ mi from Jerus)

challenge from Pharisees and Saducees… again – lose/lose for Jesus: Pharisees (Stoics): Beelzebub connection; Saducees: (Epicureans, materialists) denied miracles, etc. (Acts 23:8)

if Jesus did give sign, Pharisees credit it to Satan, Saducees claim some sort of material explanation; could not accurately discern signs that were present, fruitless to give more; one only… Jesus’ resurrection (Mt. 12:40ff)

back across the lake (Mt. 16:4b-5) vicinity of Bethsaida (Mk. 8:22), headed into “Gentile” territory, at least a higher percentage; v.13, 25 miles north… eventually, Caesarea Philippi

discussion at beginning of “walk” north, would have had a day or so on the road depending on pace – Jesus begins this part of conversation with stern warning

Person(s) being questioned:

some or all of the Twelve – general term “his disciples”, “the disciples” – at least the ones that didn’t mind rowing again

only had one loaf; Jesus probably having a little fun along with serious warning and test of their thinking / reasoning

Jesus tosses out verbal firecracker, according to Mark “give them strict orders”, waits to see what disciples will do with it

their solution: mumble among themselves… on subject only incidentally connected to Jesus’ warning

Question behind the question:

Mark 8:17-18Aware of this, He said to them, “Why are you discussing that you do not have any bread? Do you not yet understand or comprehend? Is your heart hardened?Do you have eyes, and not see, and do you have ears, and not hear? And do you not remember?” CSB

What do you think my mission is here? and your mission in the future? Hint: see Mt. 16:13ff

Time is short, don’t you have better (read: more significant) things to discuss?

Expected response:

Um, isn’t that what you were talking about? You hungry or something?

better: oh sorry, care to explain? give little more detail?

best: oh yeah, you were talking about the Pharisees false doctrine, right?

Jesus’ point:

Faith (and associated understanding) needs to mature, become the driving force of thinking and acting

Purpose of miracles: 1) John 20:30-31; attest his deity; 2) Matt. 15:32; show compassion; 3) Mark 5:18-19; freed for service

Need to put aside preoccupation with externals (leaven), focus on true Gospel and application to daily life

iow, things that hinder advance of Gospel freedom in disciples and those they would influence must be abandoned / avoided

Modern Application:

what are things we are preoccupied with that

show lack of faith

steal our joy (John 17.13)

hinder ability to serve Christ by ministering to others



17. Why do you also transgress the commandment of God because of your tradition?

17. Why do you also transgress the commandment of God because of your tradition?

Read: Matthew 15:1-9; Mark 7:1-13


greater Gennesaret area (Matt. 14:34; Mark 6:53ff)

in presence of a multitude (Matt. 15:10) or crowd outside a house (Mk. 7:17)

included in multitude: Pharisees and scribes from Jerusalem

Person(s) being questioned:

Pharisees and (some of the) scribes who had come from Jerusalem – members of Sanhedrin

“In general it decided all doubtful questions relating to the religious law (Sanh. 88b) and rendered the final decision in regard to the sentence of the teacher who promulgated opinions contradicting the traditional interpretation of the Law (“zaken mamreh” Sanh. xi. 2-4; see Elder, Rebellious).” Jewish Encyclopedia

Christ appeared before it on a charge of blasphemy (Mat 26:57, Joh 19:7), Peter and John were accused before it of being false prophets and deceivers of the people (Act 4:5 ff.), Stephen was condemned by it because of blasphemy (Act 7:57-58), and Paul was charged with transgression of the Mosaic Law (Act 22:30). It had independent authority and right to arrest people by its own officers (Mat 26:47, Mar 14:48, Act 4:3; Act 5:17-18) Hastings Dictionary

not indicated explicitly in text but seems likely / plausible were sent purposely on fact-finding mission, ready to bring charges if Jesus could be detained while in Judea

only thinly veiled nearly frontal attack on / challenge to Jesus, his doctrine and practice – assumed disciples would only go against tradition if Jesus gave specific instruction to do so

Question behind the question:

Why do you place a higher priority on tradition than Law of God?

“All the traditions that then existed among the Jews had been manufactured in their workshop.” John Calvin

Why do you establish and maintain a tradition contrary to the Law of God?

Why do you rigidly hold to a tradition whose purpose is contrary to the Law of God?

Expected response:

Jesus expected exactly what he got – silent defensive resentment followed by offense at Jesus’ further criticism- Matt. 15:12

should have caused them to think – Jesus did give valid example

disciples not sure what to think – maybe they were in trouble: “do you realize you crossed the line?” kind of question to Jesus

guilt by association… could put all of them at risk if traveling to Jerusalem, were seen there – see John 7:10

Jesus, wisely, reminded disciples to look at bigger picture (Matt. 15:13-14) – those determined to pursue a lie will eventually self-destruct… by God’s design

Jesus’ point:

Law of God “designed” to show impossibility of self-salvation; tradition and its enforcement encouraged people to try

thought of themselves as experts in knowing the mind of God, doing what God viewed favorably, completely overlooked God’s intent in big picture: concerned with circumcision of flesh, not of heart (Deut. 30:6)

tradition actually result of unregenerate religious leaders trying to apply God’s Law… and failing – trying to cure disease by treating symptoms

proven by their getting relationship between heart and hand backwards – obsessively focused on physical, no grasp of spiritual principles

accurate answer to 3 QbQ – they were lost people trying desperately to maintain appearances and position (Matt. 15:14)

Jesus not writing them and their followers off, he rightly knew unless Holy Spirit moved first, they would never get it, would only grow more hostile

at same time, Jesus “called the multitude to Himself, He said to them, “Hear and understand” – willingly instructed those who had ears, correcting Pharisees’ wrong doctrine

Modern Application:

important to remember – body of tradition and practices in Jesus’ day product of centuries of development Ezra-Nehemiah on, still continuing until 70AD at least (probably 135AD latest)

started similar way to rise of Puritans, 16th century – committed to purifying church, restoring proper worship and doctrine

had to withstand overwhelming pressure (“were the least of all peoples”, Deut. 7:7) – cultural, political, religious – resisting being overrun by outsiders, assimilated into foreign culture

at some point, apparently figured didn’t need to go ad fontes, God’s written word – could instead rely on the “commentaries”, lesser authorities… same problem Reformers faced

every generation susceptible to turning Christianity into religion of head rather than heart, at same time getting away from inspired source

drift is subtle – get comfortable, complacent, sticking with what is familiar – need to keep going to Scripture, relying on Holy Spirit as ultimate authority


16. Why did you doubt?

16. Why did you doubt?

Matthew 14:31 And immediately Jesus stretched out His hand and caught him, and said to him, “O you of little faith, why did you doubt?”

Read: Matthew 14:24-33; Mark 6:47-52; John 6:16-21


immediately preceded by feeding the 5000; crowd was catching on to Jesus probable identity as Messiah – John 6:14-15

sent multitude away, perhaps didn’t go far – talking among themselves… what was best response to Messiah: public acclamation?

the Twelve probably heard some of crowd’s conversation while cleaning up leftovers – Jesus knew, sent disciples across the lake, dispersed the crowd, disappeared up the mountain

in the boat, headed across lake, spent most of night (~8 hours) rowing against the wind, traveled “3 or 4 miles” (John 6:19) by 3am (Mark 6:48), frustrated and fatigued

why did they do this? already rowed in other direction previous midday (Mark 6:31-32; John 6:1), now this (full minute to go length of sanctuary)

too stubborn to give in? maybe but not likely – seasoned fishermen, knew the lake/weather, not just difficult but dangerous

Matt. 14:22Mark 6:45 – strong word: “he made the disciples get into the boat…” – forceful compulsion, men under orders

probably assumed Jesus walked around the lake, would meet them if they could ever get there – multitude had done so previous day and arrived firstMark 6:33

“It’s a ghost” – “It’s me” – “If it’s you…” – “Come” – “Help”

Person(s) being questioned:

Peter, standing on the water, outside the boat, just rescued by Jesus… who had walked four miles on the water

ὀλιγόπιστος – puny faith (Matt. 6:30; 8:26; 16:8) – not “no faith” but “pitifully small faith”

faith he had was demonstrated by: getting out of the boat, walking away from the boat, crying to Jesus as source of help

problem: his faith wavered, was of two minds and couldn’t decide – faith not strong enough to stay “locked on” to a target

Question behind the question:

Why is your faith still so small? so weak?

underlying issue – Why are you not maturing more rapidly?

root cause – What is holding you back?

Expected response:

to original question: didn’t you see where I was? what was happening? that I was in danger?

to follow-on questions, response from Peter: defensive, nothing wrong, I’m doing fine – see Matt. 26:33-35

Jesus’ point:

not first time disciples were challenged because of weak / small / wavering faith – stilling the storm, Matt. 8:26 – not the last time either, see Matt. 17:14-20

approx. 2 years in to Jesus’ ministry, Jesus by then had performed +20 individually recorded miracles (water to wine, man with withered hand, demon-possessed, etc.) plus general references (e.g. Matt. 4:23; 14:14)

in scene immediately prior, Jesus had challenged them to do impossible (John 6:37-38), opportunity for them to trust him, then he did the “impossible” for them

given what they had seen / experienced… including calming the storm (Matt. 8:23-27), should have had much more confidence

had even been personally equipped to cast out demons, heal all kinds of sickness and disease – Matt. 10:1 – knew not only that Jesus had the power, they could share in it; even when they lacked sufficient power, Jesus did not (Matt. 17:16-18)

from Jesus’ POV Peter’s faith should have been much greater, stronger, steadier – had spent enough time w/Jesus, seen enough, not matched by degree of spiritual maturity

potentially two things holding him back:

overconfidence in self rather than Christ – didn’t fully grasp his own weakness, need for Christ’s strength

firmly held preconceived ideas – mental image of Messiah, his purpose, modus operandi… Jesus didn’t fit Peter’s mold

Modern Application:

we don’t have direct personal experience of Jesus’ miracles, however. do have comprehensive inspired record for that purpose – see John 20:30-31 – intended by Author to be adequate, equivalent in persuasive power

have same issues as Peter – slow growth, overconfidence, preconceptions

contributing factors:

insufficient knowledge / familiarity of God and his ways – need to study his Word, his world thru lens of his Word

imagine what the Church could accomplish if had faith size of mustard seed – Matt. 17:20


15. Who is My mother and who are My brothers?

Matthew 12:48 But He answered and said to the one who told Him, “Who is My mother and who are My brothers?”

Read: Matthew 12:46-50; Mark 3:31-35; Luke 8:19-21


Jesus still interacting with the crowd; not clear whether religious leaders are still present or not – possible they had left

hard to tell from print, but Jesus sounds more relaxed, focusing on genuine learners instead of challengers

“typical” rabbi / students gathering – Jesus singles out disciples (12:49), likely includes the Twelve, also other serious students/followers

see also Mark 3:21 – family concerned for Jesus’ health, especially his state of mind – riding the high from attention of all his fans, neglecting physical needs…

Person(s) being questioned:

“the one who told him” (Matt.); “a crowd …told him… he replied to them” (Mark); “told him by some… he answered them” (Luke)

group arrangement such that announcement would have to pass person-to-person to reach Jesus

like all of Jesus’ public teaching, had all of hearers in view; good to remember – Jesus gave additional instruction to Twelve, also inner circle of Peter, James, John

but… none of that instruction had nature of insider secrets – was given to them to be shared, passed on to others

Question behind the question:

Where did I really come from?

Why did I come?

What kind of relationships take precedence? see v.50, ref. to “Father”

since Jesus brings God into it, How does God define and rank relationships?

Where does that leave biological relationships? for God? for us?

Expected response:

well, Mary, of course – everybody knows who your mother is; your siblings, well, who are your mother’s other children?

few if any of followers had sufficient understanding to go beyond “obvious” on question like this

Jesus’ point:

more to Jesus than meets the eye – came to earth, not from earth – has major bearing on Jesus’ relationships

…allusion to deity (My Father), Jesus not given to earthly family only but the whole world

age 12, in Jerusalem; conversation w/Nicodemus: “God loved the world”

Jesus more than locally famous rabbi, was on mission first to his own people but not exclusively

relations that share most common ground take priority – iow, ones that endure into next life, starting with Father/child

includes relationships that can be transformed into enduring ones

God’s basis – does he know you? see Matt. 7:22-23; two basic categories, number of terms used: knows / doesn’t know; saved / lost; called / not called; friends / enemies of God; born again (from above) / condemned; made alive / dead in trespasses and sins

biology matters to God, after all he made it; human family relationships factor into God’s dealings with people

Exodus 6:5 heard groaning of children of Israel, remembered covenant with Israel

1 Kings 11:12ff withheld judgment on Solomon for sake of his father

Modern Application:

since God loved the world and sent his Son to the world, we must take Gospel to all the world, literally and figuratively

no place in world is outside God’s notice, regardless of impediments to access; same true for people groups whether in place or displaced

loyalty to Christ and his family comes first – see Matt. 10:37, 15:5-6, 19:29; does not make those relationships exclusive of others

primary investment of time, etc. should be in our “forever family”; should also invest in effort to add to that family

commands to honor father and mother, love neighbor still apply – Christian’s duty to do so in way that keeps Christ in his rightful place


14. How can you, being evil, speak good things?

Matthew 12:34 Brood of vipers! How can you, being evil, speak good things? For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks.

Read: Matthew 12:33-37cf. Luke 6:45


went to his(?) house, intending rest and food, crowd thought otherwise (12:20); family sought to “rescue” him (12:21, 46)

demon-possessed man brought to him and healed (12:22) – physically and spiritually

Pharisees and scribes engage in whispering “fake news”, intending to redirect line of reasoning

Jesus takes initiative, calling out religious leaders for sinfulness

Person(s) being questioned:

Jesus teaching multitude in general, always had the “big” group in mind – see v.23, 46

Jesus knew both words and thoughts of Pharisees and scribes: v.24, 38

Addresses “brood of vipers” – portion of group w/i multitude: religious leaders who had hostile agenda

keep in mind: Jesus confronted them for rejecting truth, not rejecting him – an issue of principle, not personal primarily

also remember: not all scribes and Pharisees had same agenda – at least some recognized, acknowledged, embraced truth

Question behind the question:

Why are you trying to pretend?

What is true religion?

What is required / expected to please God?

Expected response:

honest response: is not possible – would be universal agreement with sayings about tree, application to heart

probable response: who is he talking about, can’t be us, must be them

actual response shows accuracy of Jesus’ charge, hardness of their heart – was like nothing Jesus said registered, had to prove his identity before they would receive anything

Jesus’ point:

if they met Ray Comfort, “are you a good person”, responded “duh, of course” – would also have claimed to do good, say good

example: apostle Paul, Philippians 3:3-6 – pre-conversion, confident words and deeds gave right standing before God

point: external conformity to God’s law a worthless exercise unless motivation is love for God – outward obedience treated by God as disobedience when not properly motivated

see Mark 12:30; Deut. 6:5; 10:12; 30:6; cp. Isa. 1:11-13; 29:13ff

reason is: God wants whole person devoted to him, God not satisfied to be cosmic vending machine… good deeds in, blessings out

in fact, good heart finds favor with God even when deeds fall short of perfection

secondary point: what is being treasured up in the heart will ultimately be externally evident – most readily seen when relaxed, off-duty (idle)

is outward evidence that reveals true character will serve as evidence to substantiate God’s justifying / condemning

Modern Application:

addressing issue of spiritual abuse in the church among leaders – in spite of how their teaching sounds, are actually leading people into serious error and away from truth

root cause: unqualified for position of spiritual leadership – at least have wrong motivation, may even be unconverted

will be most apparent when not “on-stage” – less formal or unguarded moments, structure of free time, etc.

secondary application to all Christians

remember: God is most concerned with heart/motive – heart/soul/mind and strength: 3 internal, 1 external

keep a high standard for word and deed from a good heart

“…in the careless word when one is not on guard, the true character of the heart and disposition is manifested. Final acquittal and condemnation will not rest on one’s formal conduct but on conduct that evidences the true nature of one’s inner being.” Ladd, NT Theology, 128

13. How can one enter a strong man’s house and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man?

Matthew 12:29 Or how can one enter a strong man’s house and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man? And then he will plunder his house.

Read: Matthew 12:22-32; Mark 3:20-30; cp. Luke 11:14-26

Matthew and Mark – in Galilee; Luke – in Judea (probably) about a year later


some time later than encounter in the synagogue; returned with disciples to Capernaum, Sea of Galilee (3:7)

went to his(?) house, intending rest and food, crowd thought otherwise (12:20); family sought to “rescue” him (12:21)

demon-possessed man brought to him and healed (12:22) – physically and spiritually

crowds begin considering “question of the day” – could this be the Messiah? one element of healing/exorcism powers – intended to validate Jesus as Messiah; cf. Luk 4:18; John 5:36

Pharisees and scribes start whispering, intending to redirect line of reasoning – do not want people to think of Jesus as Messiah

attempting to discredit Jesus in minds of crowd – is mentally ill, under influence or power of Beelzebub (ruler of underworld)

Person(s) being questioned:

question for Pharisees and scribes from Jerusalem (12:25, 3:23) – one of series of questions that are combination of instruction and rebuke

Jesus’ example an encouragement to crowds – start with Scripture and think for yourselves – don’t take word of Pharisees/pope as Gospel w/o checking it out

people were reasoning rightly, should have been encouraged; instead, Jesus provoked by Pharisees’ attempt to steer people away from truth

Jesus also draws line in sand for Pharisees (12:31-32) – cross the line into that kind of blasphemy and there is no hope

Jesus challenges Pharisees’ logic – if/then reasoning: if charge is true, how can Satan’s domain continue? is he really that foolish?

Jesus turns Pharisees’ reasoning on themselves – if/then: if charge is true, power behind Jesus’ casting out demons is really Beelzebub, then is not same being empowering Jewish exorcists they sanctioned? (Acts 19:13ff)

third declaration – if/then: if Jesus not acting by Beelzebub’s power, then what? sets up parable and embedded question

Question behind the question:

What is necessary to effectively take territory away from Satan?

Who or what is the only known source of such?

What does that mean in relation to Jesus?

What should we conclude about the “kingdom of God”?

Expected response:

only way to achieve that is through superior power and authority – something sons of Sceva clearly lacked

God the only known source in Jesus’ day or any other era of such power and authority

Jesus must then be acting with power and authority of God and not Beelzebub

Jesus’ point:

if all of this is true, then how does kingdom concept impact Pharisees?

just as Jesus has power and authority superior to Beelzebub, so his kingdom is superior to Satan’s kingdom

and is also true in regard to Pharisees – kingdom they were trying to preserve inferior to one Jesus came to establish

kingdom and covenant go together – Pharisees ideologically bound to Old covenant, Jesus intending to inaugurate New covenant, superior in every way

until Jesus’ day God’s kingdom largely limited to one people – Jews – and one geographical area – Middle East

if kingdom to advance and claim territory in all the world as promised to Abraham (Gen. 12:3; 18:18; 22:18; 26:4) Satan must be restrained

Christ’s kingdom an exclusive domain – is either you or the strong man, not both; is either Christ or Satan – is obvious to objective witness whose kingdom is superior

Modern Application:

if Satan must be bound for Christ’s kingdom to advance, at same time, the advance of Christ’s kingdom throughout world restrains Satan by power of Word and Spirit

is work of Holy Spirit opening eyes and minds to spiritual truth found in God’s word that restrains Satan’s ability to deceive

Gospel truth means used by Holy Spirit to deliver individual from bondage to sin and Satan, restraining ability to influence

is presence of Holy Spirit indwelling believer that removes territory from Satan’s domain – the two cannot coexist in individual

couple sub-points: John said “kingdom is at hand”; Jesus said “kingdom has come upon you” (Matt. 12:28), “is within you” (Luk 17:21) – we should not be overlooking present kingdom in favor of future millennial kingdom

if point of parable that Jesus is going about binding Satan, then that sets time reference for Rev. 20:2He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years;”

kingdom of God / kingdom of heaven not different kingdoms; not something reserved for Jewish people at some future time

kingdom is now, Satan is bound although not powerless; can and should share Gospel boldly and confidently


12. Of how much more value then is a man than a sheep?

Matthew 12:12 Of how much more value then is a man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.”

Read: Matthew 12:9-14; Mark 3:1-6; Luke 6:6-11 (cf. John 5:16-30)


immediate setting – Sabbath in the synagogue, group present including scribes (experts in the law) and Pharisees (Luk. 6:7)

Jesus present as teacher, disabled man also there (right hand, Luk. 6:6), religious leaders with an agenda… to discover basis for discrediting Jesus (Luk. 6:7)

two hot-button issues for Pharisees: Sabbath practice and questions of authority – what kept coming up in challenges to Jesus

questioning actions of Jesus and his disciples on Sabbath – one of distinctives, set Jews apart from Romans, vigorously boundaried, rigidly defended and maintained

Jesus knew challengers’ thoughts, intent, so forced the issue: “stand up” (Mar & Luk); “is it lawful to heal” (Mat); “is it lawful to do good” (Mar & Luk); no response (Mar); second question, “…sheep…”, answers his own question (Mat); angry, grieved (Mar), healed

Person(s) being questioned:

“them” – asked question so they could accuse (Mat. 12:10), identified as “scribes and Pharisees” (Luk. 6:7)

“looked around at them” (Mar & Luk) – at least group of leaders, since “grieved by the hardness of their hearts”

not typical of Jesus’ attitude toward average Jew, reserved for leaders who should have known and done better

in synagogue teaching session, response to rabbi not limited to religious types – any of men could have answered

Question behind the question:

more than one concept in view here, several “layers” to issue Jesus addresses

1 – if you treat an animal with compassion, why not a person

really a more fundamental principle than Jesus’ miracle of healing – level of basic human response to another creature

2 – what about tradition/regulations (entire body of oral and written tradition raised to level of Mosaic law or above) that should encourage or facilitate doing good but seem to hinder or even prevent it

3 – what is whole purpose of Sabbath anyway, how is that reflected in Sabbath practice and regulation in Jesus’ day (see earlier context)

4 – who has authority over the Sabbath and to whom does it point, in whom is it “fulfilled” (Mat. 11:28-30)

Expected response:

religious leaders on horns of dilemma – if they give honest response, would defeat their purpose by validating what Jesus was about to do; to give response that supported position, would damage/destroy their credibility and enhance Jesus’ standing — a lose-lose proposition for them

honest answer – no comparison between life of creature and life of human being made in God’s image

answer they wanted to give – sheep more valuable: would rescue dumb animal to avoid financial loss, disabled guy has waited this long, he can wait until not the Sabbath

keeping Law by maintaining externals all they knew – most lacked ability to grasp spiritual significance

Jesus’ point:

1 – because of imago Dei, should show compassion to both beast and man… especially if is right to rescue beast; yet even on lesser grounds – man is rational being, beast is not – man should be treated better than dumb creature

2 – probably without exception all present would agree: God is good, God does good, God expects his people to do good, God’s law reflects those principles

if/then! if that is true, then anything intended to accompany God’s law must work with it, not against it – iow, man’s regulations to guard God’s law must promote good while restraining evil

a regulation that would forbid Jesus healing or doing other works of mercy just the opposite – prevents doing good, facilitates continuance of evil (illness, disease, disability)

3 – purpose is pursuit of holiness – in order to do that, work is forbidden… either self-imposed or imposed by another (master/employer)

sanctified / set apart as day to rest from normal daily labor and, in place of that, use freed-up time to cultivate relationship with God, understanding of God and his ways

4 – the One who instituted it has authority – that means Jesus, because one with Father; points ultimately to Christ, re-creation and redemption; is fulfilled in Christ, source of rest for his people, one who leads them into eternal rest

Modern Application:

1 – use the right method / metric when considering environmental / ecological issues

2 – church and state both need to pay attention to this: rules/laws and expectations across the board should promote/facilitate what God’s law commands, forbid/hinder what God’s law forbids

important note: church expectations / regulations must not go beyond God’s Word and bind conscience in ways God does not

3 – remember God’s design intent regarding 1 day in 7, follow it, encourage others to do so with respect to both what God forbids and what he expects

rest from normal labors, attend to pursuit of holiness; don’t do what encourages others to violate those principles (shopping on Sunday, e.g.), do encourage them to pursue God

4 – above all, seek rest for soul in Christ, look forward with anticipation to eternal rest promised to the believer